Volta Sensor Decoding
Glasses for partially sighted people were invented in the seventeenth century (Rosenthal, 1996; Lee, 2013). At the same time, ear trumpets, passive amplifiers that collect sound waves, and direct them into the ear channel, replaced the cupped hand, the popular method for hard of hearing used since Roman Emperor Hadrian's era (Valentinuzzi, 2020). These two sensory tools are the origins of modern assistive devices and technologies that support a more independent life for people with disabilities (Robitaille, 2010).
Volta Sensor Decoding
Research advances in machine and deep learning have also contributed to improved electroencephalogram (EEG) decoding and target identification accuracy. In this perspective, visual evoked potential (VEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are widely explored, mainly due to low user training rate (Waytowich et al., 2016). One research involving people with motor and speech disabilities to evaluate a new monitor for generating VEP for daily BCI applications is conducted by Maymandi et al. (2021). The target identification in this study was performed using DNN. Moreover, DNN have become a useful approach to improve classification performance of BCI systems using EEG signals (Kwak et al., 2017; Craik et al., 2019).
Non-signers, i.e., people who are not familiar with sign language can communicate with deaf people who speak using the translators of sign language into text or speech (Truong et al., 2016). These translators predominantly use ML algorithms to find the correct sign, like convolutional and recurrent neural networks (Bendarkar et al., 2021) or deep learning (Bantupalli and Xie, 2018). A very promising human-machine interface (HMI) device are communication gloves, which have sensors that interpret the motions of sign languages into natural language combining virtual and augmented reality with AAC (Ozioko and Dahiya, 2022). Ozioko and Dahiya (2022) review many of them, for example, Robotic Alphabet (RALPH), CyberGlove, PneuGlove, 5DT Data Glove and Cyberglove, the last two achieving a recognition accuracy higher than 90%. Apart from purely mechanical interpretation of sign language, several research teams started interpreting facial expressions of people using sign language (Cardoso et al., 2020; Silva et al., 2020). A standard CNN and hybrid CNN+LST were successfully used to translate facial expressions in Brazilian Sign Language Libras (Silva et al., 2020). All these technologies abundantly use almost all the AI algorithms and methods, including NLP essentials, which are their driving force (Cardoso et al., 2020). 350c69d7ab