Nanobots The Artificial Blood Pdf 14
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HBOCs from expired human blood or fresh bovine blood have to undergo numerous modifications to make them safe and effective oxygen carriers. The RBCs are first lysed to release their hemoglobin, and then the stroma is removed by a variety of methods, including centrifugation, filtration and chemical extraction. The stroma-free hemoglobin is then purified and undergoes modifications to cross-link, polymerize or conjugate it to other compounds. Without these modifications, the oxygen affinity of the stroma-free hemoglobin is too great to facilitate oxygen release in the tissues. Also, when it is outside the RBC, hemoglobin rapidly dissociates into 32 kDa αβ dimers and 16 kDa α or β monomers, both of which are rapidly filtered in the kidney and can precipitate in the loop of Henle, resulting in severe renal toxicity. The dimer haem iron is oxidized more easily than in the tetramer, leading to molecules unable to bind oxygen. Moreover, the formation of ferric ions triggers a cascade of reactions that generate reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, the molecular basis of oxidative damage.
[A] Arterial and venous circulation pathways in the body that carries RBCs, WBCs andplatelets for respective biological functions; [B] Representative histology stain of bloodsmear showing RBC, WBC and platelet; [C] Schematic cartoon and representative SEM image ofRBC; [D] Schematic cartoon and representative SEM image of WBC; [E] Schematic cartoon andrepresentative SEM images of resting and active platelets.
[A]-[E] Chemical structure of various perfluorocarbon (PFC) compounds that have beenstudied for oxygen carrying applications; [F] Oxygen binding curves of whole blood andHBOC systems (cooperative sigmoid binding characteristics) compared with tat PFC-basedoxygen carriers (linear binding characteristics).
Process scheme and representative particle images (fluorescence or SEM) for [A] thePRINT technology and [B] the template-mediated thermostretching and layer-by-layerassembly based technology to produce micro- and nanoparticles that mimic the size andshape of blood cells (e.g. RBCs and platelets).
Since 2017, six CAR T-cell therapies have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). All are approved for the treatment of blood cancers, including lymphomas, some forms of leukemia, and, most recently, multiple myeloma.
As part of their immune-related duties, T cells release cytokines, chemical messengers that help stimulate and direct the immune response. In the case of CRS, the infused T cells flood the bloodstream with cytokines, causing serious side effects, including dangerously high fevers and precipitous drops in blood pressure. In some cases, severe CRS can be fatal.
Although CD19 and BCMA are the only antigens for which there are FDA-approved CAR T-cell therapies, CAR T-cell therapies have been developed that target other antigens commonly found in blood cancers, including therapies that target multiple antigens at one time.
Nanoparticles can be used in the efficient delivery of drugs to diseased cells when treating cancer or other diseases. Nanoparticles can also be used in the diagnosis of life-threatening blood clots which often remain unexposed until they break down in the body.
Recently researchers at MIT have created synthetic nanoparticles which allow a better detection of blood clots and cancer. The researchers coated nanoparticles with a number of short protein fragments known as peptides.
Scientists have long been working on biomarkers which can detect cancer and other diseases but this has proved a challenging task. The recent discovery of synthetic biomarkers has been remarkable in the early diagnosis of cancer and the monitoring of tiny blood clots in the body.
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is a way to get immune cells called T cells (a type of white blood cell) to fight cancer by changing them in the lab so they can find and destroy cancer cells. CAR T-cell therapy is also so